, As promised, when his tasks were complete, Sulla returned his powers and withdrew to his country villa near Puteoli to be with his family.  Regardless, by the standards of the Roman political class, Sulla was a very poor man. Secondary sources provide second-hand information and commentary from other researchers. The proceeds from auctioned property more than made up for the cost of rewarding those who killed the proscribed, filling the treasury. In 109, Rome sent Quintus Caecilius Metellus to continue the war. Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo, merely an ex-aedile and one of Sulla's long-time enemies, had contested the top magistracy.  The troops were willing to follow Sulla to Rome; his officers, however, realised Sulla's plans and deserted him (except his quaestor and kinsman, almost certainly Lucius Licinius Lucullus).  Sallust declares him well-read, intelligent, and he was fluent in Greek. Sulla would ratify Mithridates' position in Pontus and have him declared a Roman ally. They were, however, successful in holding Macedonia, then governed by propraetor Gaius Sentius and his legate Quintus Bruttius Sura. , In the summer of 86BC, two major battles were fought in Boeotia. While Sulla was moving in the south, Scipio fought Pompey in Picenum but was defeated when his troops again deserted. He's remembered best for bringing his soldiers into Rome, the killing of Roman citizens, and his military skill in several areas. Sulla then established a system where all consuls and praetors served in Rome during their year in office, and then commanded a provincial army as a governor for the year after they left office. Athens itself was spared total destruction "in recognition of [its] glorious past" but the city was sacked.  Keaveney 2005, pp. Published by at 29, 2022. Research Process and Acumen: Experience with primary sources can support future academic success. Although he was able to regain the command, his political setup in Rome collapsed almost as soon as he left Italy, and the war would . [81.3] Magnesia, the only city in Asia that remained loyal, was defended against Mithridates with the greatest courage. Wikipedia entry. For example: scholarly or popular books and articles, reference books, biographies, or textbooks. , When the march on Rome started, the Senate and people were appalled. Primary sources are the evidence of history, original records or objects created by participants or observers at the time historical .  Sulla served as one of the legates in the southern theatre assigned to consul Lucius Julius Caesar. , The same year, Bocchus paid for the erection of a statue depicting Sulla's capture of Jugurtha. Resigning his dictatorship in 79 BC, Sulla retired to private life and died the following year. In the natural and social sciences, primary sources are often empirical studies . He then fought successfully against Germanic tribes during the Cimbrian War, and Italian allies during the Social War.  Faced with Fimbria's army in Asia, Lucullus' fleet off the coast, and internal unrest, Mithridates eventually met with Sulla at Dardanus in autumn 85BC and accepted the terms negotiated by Archelaus.  Rome unsuccessfully defended Delos from an joint invasion by Athens and Pontus. Archelaus tried to break out but were unsuccessful; Sulla then annihilated the Pontic army and captured its camp. This brief guide is designed to help students and researchers find and evaluate primary sources available online. Of those who contracted the bubonic plague, 4 out of 5 died within eight days. Examples include interview transcripts, statistical data, and works of art. J. Works of art, in general, are considered primary sources. , During the violence, Sulla was forced to shelter in Marius' nearby house (later denied in his memoirs). The second was Lucius Cornelius Sulla, who died young. Website. Finding Primary Sources Primary Sources from DocsTeach Thousands of online primary source documents from the National Archives to bring the past to life as classroom teaching tools.  All of these victories would have been won before the consular elections in October 89. Marius and his son, along with some others, escaped to Africa. Sulla and Pompeius Rufus opposed the bill, which Sulpicius took as a betrayal; Sulpicius, without the support of the consuls, looked elsewhere for political allies. Sulla was a man to whom, up to victory, sufficient praise can hardly be given, and for whom, after victory, no criticism can be adequate. At the meeting, he took the seat between the Parthian ambassador, Orobazus, and Ariobarzanes, seeking to gain psychological advantage over the Partian envoy by portraying the Parthians and the Cappadocians as equals with Rome as superior. Regardless, if he had immediate plans for a consulship, they were forced into the background at the outbreak of war. Some set their hearts on houses, some on landsThe whole period was one of debauched tastes and lawlessness.  An epitaph, which Sulla composed himself, was inscribed onto the tomb, reading, "No friend ever served me, and no enemy ever wronged me, whom I have not repaid in full. , After the battle at the Colline Gate, Sulla summoned the Senate to the temple of Bellona at the Campus Martius. After the battle, Marius withdrew to Praeneste and was there besieged. A gifted and innovative general, he achieved numerous successes in wars against foreign and domestic opponents. This may have been related to Sulla's campaign for the consulship.  According to the ancient sources, Archelaus commanded between 60,000 and 120,000 men; in the aftermath, he allegedly escaped with only 10,000. Primary sources in history are often created by people who witnessed, participated in, or were otherwise close to a particular event. Provides tips on how to read and use primary sources in historical research. The proscriptions are widely perceived as a response to similar killings that Marius and Cinna had implemented while they controlled the Republic during Sulla's absence. Learning in Black and White. 133/18 Scipio praises C.Marius. Yes, if the painting originated at the time it depicts, then it is a primary source. Catulus, with Sulla, moved to block their advance; the two men likely cooperated well. , After the younger Marius' defeat, Sulla had the Samnite war captives massacred, which triggered an uprising in his rear. Scipio's men quickly abandoned him for Sulla; finding him almost alone in his camp, Sulla tried again to persuade Scipio to defect. For instance, Da Vinci's Mona Lisa is a primary source because it is the most famous art piece during the Renaissance period. Primary Source 10. , For 82BC, the consular elections returned Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, in his third consulship, with the younger Gaius Marius, the son of the seven-time consul, who was then twenty-six. , Relations between Rome and its allies (the socii), had deteriorated over the years up to 91BC.  Marius, buttressed by Samnite support, fought a long and hard battle with Sulla at Sacriportus that resulted in defeat when five of his cohorts defected.  Pompeii was taken some time during the year, along with Stabiae and Aeclanum; with the capture of Aeclanum, Sulla forced the Hirpini to surrender. Rome at the End of the Punic Wars [History, Book 6] [At this Site] Acts of the Divine Augustus (Res Gestae Divi Augusti) [At MIT] The Life of Gnaeus Julius Agricola (40-93 CE), [At UNRV History] Life of Cnaeus Julius Agricola (40-93 CE), c.98 CE trans. They had, however, fallen on hard times. These two reforms were enacted primarily to allow Sulla to increase the size of the Senate from 300 to 600 senators. The faculty and students of the Hanover College History Department initiated the Hanover Historical Texts Project in 1995, at a time when few primary sources were available outside of published anthologies. The Mithridatic War (88 - 85 BC) He was then assigned by lot to serve under the consul Gaius Marius. (5) Horace, Epode (c. 35 BC) When it came to hiding his intentions, his mind was incredibly unfathomable, yet with all else he was extremely generous; especially with money. He was both eloquent and clever, and he made friends easily. He was to return the kingdoms of Bithynia and Cappadocia to Nicomedes and Ariobarzanes, respectively. Perseus Collection of Greek and Roman Material - Has numerous texts of primary sources. As Sulla viewed the office, the tribunate was especially dangerous, and his intention was to not only deprive the Tribunate of power, but also of prestige (Sulla himself had been officially deprived of his eastern command through the underhanded activities of a tribune). Despite initial difficulties, Sulla was successful with minimal resources and preparation; with few Roman troops, he hastily levied allied soldiers and advanced quickly into rugged terrain before routing superior enemy forces. His rival, Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, described Sulla as having the cunning of a fox and the courage of a lion but that it was his cunning that was by far the most dangerous. The assembly of the people subsequently ratified the decision, with no limit set on his time in office. Primary sources are most often produced around the time of the events you are studying. Tweet. . , The second law concerned the sponsio, which was the sum in dispute in cases of debt, and usually had to be lodged with the praetor before the case was heard.  They were designed to regulate Rome's finances, which were in a very sorry state after all the years of continual warfare. The tools are designed to support 3 levels of critical thinking and inquiry skills (explore, analyse and critically analyse) for years 1 to 13. He also divorced his then-wife Cloelia and married Metella, widow of the recently-deceased Marcus Aemilius Scaurus. Sulla, in southern Italy, operated largely defensively on Lucius Julius Caesar's flank while the consul conducted offensive campaigning.  Sulla's reforms both looked to the past (often repassing former laws) and regulated for the future, particularly in his redefinition of maiestas (treason) laws and in his reform of the Senate. Reason #4: studying primary sources helps students become better citizens. , Political developments in Rome also started to bring an end to the war. Sulla, himself a patrician, thus ineligible for election to the office of Plebeian Tribune, thoroughly disliked the office.  Buttressed by success against Rome's traditional enemies, the Samnites, and general Roman victory across Italy, Sulla stood for and was elected easily to the consulship of 88BC; his colleague would be Quintus Pompeius Rufus. In fact, many sources can be either primary or secondary depending on the context of the research and of the source itself. With Sulpicius able to enact legislation without consular opposition, Sulla discovered that Marius had tricked him, for the first piece of legislation Sulpicius brought was a law transferring the command against Mithridates to Marius. Social: Facebook Page YouTube Page Instagram Page. Biographies of historical and famous people. , The general feeling in Italy, however, was decidedly anti-Sullan; many people feared Sulla's wrath and still held memories of his extremely unpopular occupation of Rome during his consulship. He was also notorious for his personal relationships . Sulla's descendants continued to be prominent in Roman politics into the imperial period.  Winning Bocchus' friendship and making plain Rome's demands for Jugurtha's deliverance, Sulla successfully concluded negotiations and secured Bocchus' capture of Jugurtha and the king's rendition to Marius' camp. 106/10 The quaestor L.Sulla arrives at Marius' camp with reinforcements from Here are the names and relevant periods for some of the main ancient Latin and Greek sources for Roman history. What Is a Primary Source? He never allowed his debaucheries to interfere with his duties but he devoted all his leisure time to them. Examples of tertiary sources include encyclopedias and dictionaries, chronologies, almanacs, directories, indexes, and bibliographies. They are original research, thinking, or discovery on a topic or event, and are written or created by people who actually experienced the event . Sarah Cooper teaches 8th grade U.S. history and is assistant head for academic life at Flintridge Preparatory School in La Canada, Calif. Sarah is the .  The Cimbric war also revived Italian solidarity, aided by Roman extension of corruption laws to allow allies to lodge extortion claims. sulla primary sources. Sulla raised important cavalry forces for Marius and was responsible for the . When he was still a proconsul in 82, he planned and executed the proscriptions against his enemies for revenge, especially from the Marian camp, and against rich Romans because he needed money to pay his veterans . To this end, he reaffirmed the requirement that any individual wait for 10 years before being re-elected to any office. The personal motto was "no better friend, no worse enemy.". This prophecy was to have a powerful hold on Sulla throughout his lifetime. Plutarch of Chaeronea in Boeotia (ca. His primary duty was the defeat of Mithridates and the re-establishment of Roman power in the east.  Welcome to The Internet History Sourcebooks Project, a collection of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts presented cleanly (without advertising or excessive layout) for educational use. 82 BC. , Starting in 104BC, Marius moved to reform the defeated Roman armies in southern Gaul. Pueblo, CO 81001. It is intended to serve the needs of teachers and students in college survey courses in modern European history and American history, as well as in modern Western Civilization and World Cultures. He then sailed for Italy at the head of 1,200 ships. The Senate moved the senatus consultum ultimum against him and was successful in levying large amount of men and materiel from the Italians. The young Gaius Julius Caesar, as Cinna's son-in-law, became one of Sulla's targets, and fled the city. Killing Cluentius before the city's walls, Sulla then invested the town and for his efforts was awarded a grass crown, the highest Roman military honour. , Sulla's goal now was to write his memoirs, which he finished in 78 BC, just before his death. After another attempt to relieve Praeneste failed, Carbo lost his nerve and attempted to retreat to Africa; his lieutenants attempted again to relieve Praeneste but after that again failed, marched on Rome to force Sulla from his well-defended positions. From Book 81 [81.1] [87 BCE] Lucius Sulla besieged Athens, which had been occupied by Archelaus, an officer of Mithridates; [81.2]  after much labor he took the city .. note he gave it back the freedom it used to have.  The publicity attracted by this feat boosted Sulla's political career. Upon his arrival, Sulla had his quaestor Lucullus order Sura, who had vitally delayed Mithridates' advances into Greece, to retreat back into Macedonia.  Political violence in Rome continued even in Sulla's absence. , Under Marius, the Roman forces followed a very similar plan as under Metellus, capturing and garrisoning fortified positions in the African countryside. , In the aftermath of the battle, Sulla was approached by Archelaus for terms. During these marriages, he engaged in an affair with Nicopolis, who also was older than him. senators and equites) executed, although as many as 9,000 people were estimated to have been killed. The breakdown allowed Sulla to play the aggrieved party and place blame on his enemies for any further bloodshed.
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